Database connection switching for cells

Database connection switching for cells

https://blueprints.launchpad.net/nova/+spec/cells-db-connection-switching

In order for Nova API to perform queries on cell databases, the database connection information for the target cell must be used. Nova API must pass the cell database connection information to the DB API layer.

Problem description

In Cells v2, instead of using a nova-cells proxy, nova-api will interact directly with the database and message queue of the cell for an instance. Instance -> cell mappings are stored in a table in the API level database. Each InstanceMapping refers to a CellMapping, and the CellMapping contains the connection information for the cell. We need a way to communicate the database connection information from the CellMapping to the DB layer, so when we update an instance, it will be updated in the cell database where the instance’s data resides.

Use Cases

  • Operators want to partition their deployments into cells for scaling, failure domain, and buildout reasons. When partitioned, we need a way to route queries to the cell database for an instance.

Proposed change

We propose to store the database connection information for a cell in the RequestContext where it can be used by the DB API layer to interact with the cell database. Currently, there are two databases that can be used at the DB layer: ‘main’ and ‘api’ that are selected by the caller by method name. We will want to consolidate the two methods into one that takes a parameter to choose which EngineFacade to use. The field ‘db_connection’ will be added to RequestContext to store the key to use for looking up the EngineFacade.

When a request comes in, nova-api will look up the instance mapping in the API database. It will get the database information from the instance’s CellMapping and store a key based on it in the RequestContext ‘db_connection’ field. Then, the DB layer will look up the EngineFacade object for interacting with the cell database using the ‘db_connection’ key stored in the RequestContext.

Alternatives

One alternative would be to add an argument to DB API methods to optionally take database connection information to use instead of the configuration setting and pass it when taking action on objects. This would require changing the signatures of all the DB API methods to take the keyword argument or otherwise finding a way to let all of the DB API methods derive from such an interface. There is also precedent of allowing use of a field in the RequestContext to communicate “read_deleted” to the DB API model_query.

Data model impact

None

REST API impact

None

Security impact

The database connection field in the RequestContext could contain sensitive data.

Notifications impact

None

Other end user impact

None

Performance Impact

This change on its own does not introduce a performance impact. The overall design of keeping only mappings in the API DB and instance details in the cell databases introduces an additional database lookup for the cell database connection information. This can however be addressed by caching mappings.

Other deployer impact

None

Developer impact

This change means that developers should be aware that cell database connection information is contained in the RequestContext and be mindful that it could contain sensitive data. Developers will need to use the interfaces for getting database connection information from a CellMapping and setting it in a RequestContext in order to interact query a cell database.

Implementation

Assignee(s)

Primary assignee:

melwitt

Other contributors:

dheeraj-gupta4

Work Items

  • Add a database connection field to RequestContext

  • Add a context manager to nova.context that populates a RequestContext with the database connection information given a CellMapping

  • Modify nova.db.sqlalchemy.api get_session and get_engine to use the database connection information from the context, if it’s set

Testing

Since no user visible changes will occur with this change, the current suite of Tempest or functional tests should be sufficient.

Documentation Impact

Developer documentation could be written to describe how to use the new interfaces.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

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