Expose host capabilities


Ensuring proper scheduling can be a difficult task, especially when the instances require several host features or capabilities. This would require the administrators to know what features are available for a certain hypervisor version and / or creating quite a few host aggregates, which can become tedious.

Problem description

Currently, the nova scheduler is not aware of all the host capabilities or features the compute nodes might have. For example, certain features require a minimum hypervisor version. The only way to handle this would be to set filters (e.g. image property requires_hypervisor_version) in order to ensure proper scheduling. This is less than ideal, as it requires the administrators to know which feature requires what hypervisor version. [1]

On top of this, there are some features that are not available without proper configuration. Choosing to deploy an instance with such a feature on such a node would fail. For example, Hyper-V Shielded VMs cannot be created on a host that does not have the Host Guardian Service enabled and it is not Guarded [2]. Or, Hyper-V vTPM feature does not exist in Windows 10 at all, but it exists in Windows / Hyper-V Server 2016 and they share the same hypervisor version (10.0).

Plus, the users might not be aware of each and every hypervisor specific capability that they could have at their disposal. For example, Secure Boot VMs for Windows guests are available starting with Windows / Hyper-V Server 2012 R2, while the newer versions offer this feature for both Windows and Linux guests. This sort of capability can easily be reported by the compute nodes, instead of having the look for this information online.

Finally, in heterogenous deployments (different hypervisors, different hypervisor versions, different hardware), there could be N total host capabilities, each compute node having a subset from those N capabilities. Instances could require any combination of those N capabilities; creating a host aggregate for each combination of capabilities in order to ensure proper scheduling is unfeasible. Ideally, the scheduler could do feature-matching instead.

Use Cases

With this feature, most of the hypervisor specific features and other host capabilities will be reported by the compute nodes. Hypervisor features will be discovered automatically, meaning that users will not have to search for information in order to find out what features are available to them.

In heterogenous deployments, instances requiring a certain subset of the available host capabilities will be easier to deploy, as they won’t require a specific host aggregate that contains those capabilities.

Proposed change

There are two types of host capabilities:

  • Hypervisor version related capabilities: newer hypervisor versions can offer new features that can be added to the instances. (e.g.: secure boot, generation 2 VMs, etc.)

  • Undiscoverable capabilities: cannot be determined easily or at all by the nova-compute service, mostly hardware related capabilites (e.g.: SSD, SR-IOV, fibre channel, etc.)

The method get_hypervisor_capabilities must be added to virt.ComputeDriver. The driver will have to implement this method and return a HostCapabilities object containing the “hypervisor version related capabilities” mention in the Use Cases section.

As for the “undiscoverable capabilities”, a config option in the group host_capabilities can be defined for each capability.

All configured and reported capabilities must already exist as a field in the HostCapabilities object. Any unknown capability detected will generate a warning and will be ignored.

As for the capabilities present in the HostCapabilities model, they will mirror the properties that can be in the image metadata or flavor extra specs, in order to easily match requested features to host capabilites.

For example, the host could have the capability for instance secure boot. The HostCapabilities.os_secure_boot field will be set to True. In order to request the instance secure boot feature, users will have to define the image property os_secure_boot or flavor extra spec os:secure_boot as required [3].

A new filter will be implemented which will match the instance features requested with the host capabilities as previously described. It will only take into account fields defined in the HostCapabilities. If a field in the HostCapabilities instance has not been set, that capability will be considered as not present.

The host capabilities can be expressed as follows:

1. Boolean. For most cases, a host capability is simply a boolean: it is present or not. In this case, an instance requiring a certain capability can easily be matched with hosts which has that capability present or set to True. For example, the instance’s image metadata contains the property``os_vtpm`` set to required. If the HostCapabilities instance os_vtpm field is set to True, then that host is appropriate for that instance.

2. Set of values. In other cases, a host capability is expressed as a set with different values. For example, the hw_machine_type capability [4], which can have multiple values. In the Hyper-V’s case, the mentioned field is used to whether a VM is generation 1 or 2. Windows Hyper-V / Server 2012 R2 or newer will report the values [‘hyperv-gen1’, ‘hyperv-gen2’] for this capability. For an instance with image metadata containing the property hw_machine_type set to hyperv-gen2, a host will be considered appropriate if the requested capability value exists in the HostCapabilities.hw_machine_type set.

Instances can also require multiple values from the same capabilities set by expressing image properties / flavor extra spec values as lists (e.g.: image property os_foo=bar1,bar2).

3. Ordered set of values. In the case of host capabilities expressed as ordered sets (e.g.: set element i is an enhanced version of element i - 1), users can use logical operators to indicate what subset of a capability is required by the instance. For example, If an instance requires the capability os_foo to be newer / greater or equal to bar1, he will define the image property as os_foo=>=bar1.


  • Image property requires_hypervisor_version: it requires administrators to know which feature requires what hypervisor version, plus there are features that cannot be determined by version alone.

  • Host aggregates, grouping hosts by capabilities. This can become quite difficult when trying to deploy instances requiring multiple capabilities.

Data model impact

The Text column host_capabilities will be added to the compute_node database table. This column will contain all the HostCapabilities objects, reported by the compute nodes, serialized as a JSON blob. A database schema migration is necessary in order to add the column.

New HostCapabilities object will be added, containing all the capabilities currently acceptable by Nova. If any of the object’s fields is not set, then that capability will be considered as not present.

REST API impact


Security impact


Notifications impact


Other end user impact


Performance Impact


Other deployer impact


Developer impact

Drivers will have to implement the new get_host_capabilities method. It should return an instance of HostCapabilities.

In order for a new capability to be accepted in HostCapabilities, a version increment for will be necessary. If the capability’s type is undiscoverable, it will have to be added to the config option group host_capabilities.



Primary assignee:

Claudiu Belu <cbelu@cloudbasesolutions.com>

Work Items

  • host_capabilities column in compute_nodes table.

  • HostCapabilities object model.

  • host_capabilities config option group.

  • add host_capabilities attribute in HostState.

  • nova.virt.driver.ComputeDriver.get_host_capabilities method.

  • drivers’ get_host_capabilities implementation.

  • new scheduler filter.




  • Unit tests.

  • Jenkins.

Documentation Impact

The new scheduler filter and the host capabilities that can be scheduled using the new filter will have to be documented. The new config option group host_capabilities will have to be documented. The new nova API microversion will have to be documented. The deployer impact will have to be documented.


[1] #openstack-nova IRC discussion:


[2] Hyper-V vTPM / shielded VMs spec:


[3] Hyper-V UEFI Secure Boot spec:


[4] Hyper-V generation 2 VMs spec: