Glance sorting enhancements

Currently, the sorting support for Glance allows the caller to specify multiple sort keys and one sort direction. This blueprint enhances the sorting support for the /images and /images/detail APIs so that multiple sort keys and sort directions can be supplied on the request.

Problem description

There is no support for retrieving image data based on multiple sort directions; multiple sort keys and one direction are currently supported, and they’re defaulted to descending sort order by the “created_at” key.

In order to retrieve data in any sort order and direction, the REST APIs need to accept multiple sort keys and directions.

Use Case: A UI that displays a table with only the page of data that it has retrieved from the server. The items in this table need to be sorted by status first and by display name second. In order to retrieve data in this order, the APIs must accept multiple sort keys/directions.

Proposed change

The /images and /images/detail APIs will align with the API working group guidelines [1] for sorting and support the following parameter on the request:

  • sort: Comma-separated list of sort keys, each key is optionally appended with <:dir>, where ‘dir’ is the direction for the corresponding sort key (supported values are ‘asc’ for ascending and ‘desc’ for descending).

For example:


Note: The “created_at” and “id” sort keys are always appended at the end of the key list if they are not already specified in the request.

The database layer already supports multiple sort keys and directions. This blueprint will update the API layer to retrieve the sort information from the API request and pass that information down to the database layer.

All sorting is handled in the glance.db.sqlalchemy.api._paginate_query function. This function accepts an ORM model class as an argument and the only valid sort keys are attributes on the given model class. Therefore, the valid sort keys are: ‘name’, ‘status’, ‘container_format’, ‘disk_format’, ‘size’, ‘id’, ‘created_at’, ‘updated_at’.


Multiple sort keys and directions could be passed using repeated ‘sort_key’ and ‘sort_dir’ query parameters. For example:


To provide users with the ability to use the classic familiar syntax and to ensure a smoother transition to the new one, classic syntax should be implemented too.

Data model impact


REST API impact

The following existing v2 GET APIs will support the new sorting parameters:

  • /v2/images

  • /v2/images/detail

Note that the design described in this blueprint could be applied to other GET REST APIs, but this blueprint is scoped to only those listed above. Once this design is finalized, then the same approach could be applied to other APIs.

The existing API documentation needs to be updated to include the following new Request Parameters:








Comma-separated list of sort keys and optional sort directions in the form of key<:dir>, where ‘dir’ is either ‘asc’ for ascending order or ‘desc’ for descending order. Defaults to the ‘created_at’ and ‘id’ keys in descending order.

Currently, the images query supports the ‘sort_key’ and ‘sort_dir’ parameters; these will be deprecated. The API will raise a “BadRequest” error response (code 400) if both the new ‘sort’ parameter and a deprecated ‘sort_key’ or ‘sort_dir’ parameter is specified.

Neither the API response format nor the return codes will be modified, only the order of the images that are returned.

In the event that an invalid sort key or sort direction is specified, then a “BadRequest” error response (code 400) will be returned with a message like “Invalid input received: Invalid sort key” or “Invalid input received: Invalid sort dir” respectively.

Security impact


Notifications impact


Other end user impact

The python-glanceclient should be updated to accept sort keys and sort directions, using the ‘sort’ parameter being proposed in the cross-project spec [2].

Performance Impact


Other deployer impact

The choice of sort keys has no impact on data retrieval performance. Therefore, the user should be allowed to retrieve data in whatever order they need to for creating their views (see use case in the Problem Description).

Developer impact




Primary assignee:


Other contributors:






Work Items

Ideally the logic for processing the sort parameters would be common to all components and would be done in oslo; a similar blueprint is also being proposed in nova:

Therefore, I see the following work items:


  • CLI Sorting Argument Guidelines cross project spec [2];

  • Related (but independent) change being proposed in nova [3].


Both unit and Tempest tests need to be created to ensure that the data is retrieved in the specified sort order. Tests should also verify that the default sort keys (“created_at” and “id”) are always appended to the user supplied keys (if the user did not already specify them).

Documentation Impact

The /images and /images/detail API documentation will need to be updated to:

  • reflect the new sorting parameters and explain that these parameters will affect the order in which the data is returned.

  • explain how the default sort keys will always be added at the end of the sort key list.