TripleO Remote Logging

https://blueprints.launchpad.net/tripleo/+spec/remote-logging

This spec is meant to extend the tripleo-logging spec also for queens to address key issues about log transport and storage that are separate from the technical requirements created by logging for containerized processes.

Problem Description

Having logs stuck on individual overcloud nodes isn’t a workable solution for a modern system deployed at scale. But log aggregation is complex both to implement and to scale. TripleO should provide a robust, well documented, and scalable solution that will serve the majority of users needs and be easily extensible for others.

Proposed Change

Overview

In addition to the rsyslog logging to stdout defined for containers in the triple-logging spec this spec outlines how logging to remote targets should work in detail.

Essentially this comes down to a set of options for the config of the rsyslog container. Other services will have a fixed rsyslog config that forwards messages to the rsyslog container to pick up over journald.

  1. Logging destination, local, remote direct, or remote aggregator.

Remote direct means to go direct to a storage solution, in this case Elasticsearch or plaintext on the disk. Remote aggregator is a design where the processing, formatting, and insertion of the logs is a task left to the aggregator server. Using aggregators it’s possible to scale log collection to hundreds of overcloud nodes without overwhelming the storage backend with inefficient connections.

  1. Log caching for remote targets

In the case of remote targets a caching system can be setup, where logs are stored temporarily on the local machine in a configurable disk or memory cache until they can be uploaded to an aggregator or storage system. While some in memory cache is mandatory users may select a disk cache depending on how important it is that all logs be saved and stored. This allows recovery without loss of messages during network outages or service outages.

  1. Log security in transit

In some cases encryption during transit may be required. rsyslog offers ssl based encryption that should be easily deployable.

  1. Standard and extensible format

By default logs should be formatted as outlined by the Redhat common logging initiative. By standardizing logging format where possible various tools and analytics become more portable.

Mandatory fields for this standard formatting include.

version: the version of the logging template level: loglevel message: the log message tags: user specific tagging info

Additional fields must be added in the format of

<subject>.<subfield name>

See an example by rsyslog for storage in Elasticsearch below.

@timestamp November 27th 2017, 08:54:40.091 @version 2016.01.06-0 _id AV_9wiWQzdGOuK5_zY5J _index logstash-2017.11.27.08 _score _type rsyslog browbeat.cloud_name openstack-12-noncontainers-beta hostname lorenzo.perf.lab.eng.rdu.redhat.com level info message Stopping LVM2 PV scan on device 8:2... pid 1 rsyslog.appname systemd rsyslog.facility daemon rsyslog.fromhost-ip 10.12.20.155 rsyslog.inputname imptcp rsyslog.protocol-version 1 syslog.timegenerated November 27th 2017, 08:54:40.092 systemd.t.BOOT_ID 1e99848dbba047edaf04b150313f67a8 systemd.t.CAP_EFFECTIVE 1fffffffff systemd.t.CMDLINE /usr/lib/systemd/systemd –switched-root –system –deserialize 21 systemd.t.COMM systemd systemd.t.EXE /usr/lib/systemd/systemd systemd.t.GID 0 systemd.t.MACHINE_ID 0d7fed5b203f4664b0b4be90e4a8a992 systemd.t.SELINUX_CONTEXT system_u:system_r:init_t:s0 systemd.t.SOURCE_REALTIME_TIMESTAMP 1511790880089672 systemd.t.SYSTEMD_CGROUP / systemd.t.TRANSPORT journal systemd.t.UID 0 systemd.u.CODE_FILE src/core/unit.c systemd.u.CODE_FUNCTION unit_status_log_starting_stopping_reloading systemd.u.CODE_LINE 1417 systemd.u.MESSAGE_ID de5b426a63be47a7b6ac3eaac82e2f6f systemd.u.UNIT lvm2-pvscan@8:2.service tags

As a visual aid here’s a quick diagram of the flow of data.

<rsyslog in process container> -> <journald> -> <rsyslog container> -> <rsyslog aggregator / Elasticsearch>

In the process container logs from the application are packaged with metadata from systemd and other components depending on how rsyslog is configured, journald acts as a transport aggregating this input across all containers for the rsyslog container which formats this data into storable json and handles things like transforming fields and adding additional metadta as desired. Finally the data is inserted into elasticsearch or further held by an aggrebator for a few seconds before being bulk inserted into Elasticsearch.

Alternatives

TripleO already has some level of FluentD integration, but performance issues make it unusable at scale. Furthermore it’s not well prepared for container logging.

Ideally FluentD as a logging backend would be maintained, improved, and modified to use the common logging format for easy swapping of solutions.

Security Impact

The security of remotely stored data and the log storage database is outside of the scope of this spec. The major remaining concerns are security in in transit and the changes required to systemd for rsyslog to send data remotely.

A new systemd policy will have to be put into place to ensure that systemd can successfully log to remote targets. By default the syslog rules prevent any outside world access or port access, both of which are required for log forwarding.

For log encryption in transit a ssl certificate will have to be generated and distributed to all nodes in the cloud securely, probably during deployment. Special care should be taken to ensure that any misconfigured instance of rsyslog without a certificate where one is required do not transmit logs by accident.

Other End User Impact

Ideally users will read some documentation and pass an extra 5-6 variables to TripleO to deploy with logging aggregation. It’s very important that logging be easy to setup with sane defaults and no requirement on the user to implement their own formatting or template.

Users may also have to setup a database for log storage and an aggregator if their deployment is large enough that they need one. Playbooks to do this automatically will be provided, but probably don’t belong in TripleO.

Special care will have to be taken to size storage and aggregation hardware to the task, while rsyslog is very efficient storage quickly becomes a problem when a cloud can generate 100gb of logs a day. Especially since log storage systems leave it up to the user to put in place rotation rules.

Performance Impact

For small clouds rsyslog direct to Elasticsearch will perform just fine. As scale increases an aggregator (also running rsyslog, except configured to accept and format input) is required. I have yet to test a large enough cloud that an aggregator was at all stressed. Hundreds of gigs of logs a day are possible with a single 32gb ram VM as an Elastic instance.

For the Overcloud nodes forwarding their logs the impact is variable depending on the users configuration. CPU requirements don’t exceed single digits of a single core even under heavy load but storage requirements can balloon if a large on disk cache was specified and connectivity with the aggregator or database is lost for prolonged periods.

Memory usage is no more than a few hundred mb and most of that is the default in memory log cache. Which once again could be expanded by the user.

Other Deployer Impact

N/A

Developer Impact

N/A

Implementation

Assignee(s)

Who is leading the writing of the code? Or is this a blueprint where you’re throwing it out there to see who picks it up?

If more than one person is working on the implementation, please designate the primary author and contact.

Primary assignee:
jkilpatr
Other contributors:
jaosorior

Work Items

rsyslog container - jaosorior

rsyslog templating and deployment role - jkilpatr

aggregator and storage server deployment tooling - jkilpatr

Dependencies

Blueprint dependencies:

https://blueprints.launchpad.net/tripleo/+spec/logging-stdout-rsyslog

Package dependencies:

rsyslog, rsyslog-elasticsearch, rsyslog-mmjsonparse

specifically version 8 of rsyslog, which is the earliest supported by rsyslog-elasticsearch, these are packaged in Centos and rhel 7.4 extras.

Testing

Logging aggregation can be tested in CI by deploying it during any existing CI job.

For extra validation have a script to check the output into Elasticsearch.

Documentation Impact

Documentation will need to be written about the various modes and tunables for logging and how to deploy them. As well as sizing recommendations for the log storage system and aggregators where required.