Improved secret storage utilizing castellan

https://blueprints.launchpad.net/sahara/+spec/improved-secret-storage

There are several secrets (for example passwords) that sahara uses with respect to deployed frameworks which are currently stored in its database. This blueprint proposes the usage of the castellan package key manager interface for offloading secret storage to the OpenStack Key management service.

Problem description

There are several situations under which sahara stores usernames and passwords to its database. The storage of these credentials represents a security risk for any installation that exposes routes to the controller’s database. To reduce the risk of a breach in user credentials, sahara should move towards using an external key manager to control the storage of user passwords.

Proposed change

This specification proposes the integration of the castellan package into sahara. Castellan is a package that provides a single point of entry to the OpenStack Key management service. It also provides a pluggable key manager interface allowing for differing implementations of that service, including implementations that use hardware security modules (HSMs) and devices which support the key management interoperability protocol (KMIP).

Using the pluggable interface, a sahara specific key manager will be implemented that will continue to allow storage of secrets in the database. This plugin will be the default key manager to maintain backward compatibility, furthermore it will not require any database modification or migration.

For users wishing to take advantage of an external key manager, documentation will be provided on how to enable the barbican key manager plugin for castellan. Enabling the barbican plugin requires a few modifications to the sahara configuration file. In this manner, users will be able to customize the usage of the external key manager to their deployments.

Example default configuration:

[key_manager]
api_class = sahara.utils.key_manager.sahara_key_manager.SaharaKeyManager

Example barbican configuration:

[key_manager]
api_class = castellan.key_manager.barbican_key_manager.BarbicanKeyManager

To accomodate the specific needs of sahara, a new class will be created for interacting with castellan; SaharaKeyManager. This class will be based on the abstract base class KeyManager defined in the castellan package.

The SaharaKeyManager class will implement a thin layer around the storage of secrets without an external key manager. This class will allow sahara to continue operation as it exists for the Kilo release and thus maintain backward compatibility. This class will be the default plugin implementation to castellan.

Example usage:

from castellan import key_manager as km
from castellan.key_manager.objects import passphrase

keymanager = km.API()

# create secret
new_secret = passphrase.Passphrase('password_text_here')

# store secret
new_secret_id = keymanager.store_key(context, new_secret)

# retrieve secret
retrieved_secret = keymanager.get_key(context, new_secret_id)
secret_cleartext = retrieved_secret.get_encoded()

# revoke secret
keymanager.delete_key(context, new_secret_id)

This solution will provide the capability, through the barbican plugin, to offload the secrets in such a manner that an attacker would need to penetrate the database and learn the sahara admin credentials to gain access to the stored passwords. In essence we are adding one more block in the path of a would-be attacker.

This specification focuses on passwords that are currently stored in the sahara database. The following is a list of the passwords that will be moved to the key manager for this specification:

  • Swift passwords entered from UI for data sources
  • Swift passwords entered from UI for job binaries
  • Proxy user passwords for data sources
  • Proxy user passwords for job binaries
  • Hive MySQL passwords for vanilla 1.2.1 plugin
  • Hive database passwords for CDH 5 plugin
  • Hive database passwords for CDH 5.3.0 plugin
  • Hive database passwords for CDH 5.4.0 plugin
  • Sentry database passwords for CDH 5.3.0 plugin
  • Sentry database passwords for CDH 5.4.0 plugin
  • Cloudera Manager passwords for CDH 5 plugin
  • Cloudera Manager passwords for CDH 5.3.0 plugin
  • Cloudera Manager passwords for CDH 5.4.0 plugin

Alternatives

One possible alternative to using an external key manager would be for sahara to encrypt passwords and store them in swift. This would satisfy the goal of removing passwords from the sahara database while providing a level of security from credential theft.

The downside to this methodology is that it places sahara in the position of arbitrating security transactions. Namely, the use of cryptography in the creation and retrieval of the stored password data.

Data model impact

None.

REST API impact

None.

Other end user impact

None.

Deployer impact

A new configuration option will be provided by the castellan package to set the key manager implementation. This will be the SaharaKeyManager by default. Deployers wishing to use barbican might need to set a few more options depending on their installation. These options will be discussed in the documentation.

Use of an external key manager will depend on having barbican installed in the stack where it will be used.

Developer impact

Developers adding new stored passwords to sahara should always be using the key manager interface.

Sahara-image-elements impact

None.

Sahara-dashboard / Horizon impact

None.

Implementation

Assignee(s)

Primary assignee:
mimccune (Michael McCune)
Other contributors:
None

Work Items

  • create SaharaKeyManager class
  • add tests for new class
  • add tests for secret storage
  • create documentation for external key manager usage
  • migrate passwords to key manager

Dependencies

Castellan package, available through pypi. Currently this version (0.1.0) does not have a barbican implementation, but it is under review[1].

Testing

Unit tests will be created to exercise the SaharaKeyManager class. There will also be unit tests for the integrated implementation.

Ideally, functional integration tests will be created to ensure the proper storage and retrieval of secrets. The addition of these tests represents a larger change to the testing infrastructure as barbican will need to be added. Depending on the impact of changing the testing deployment these might best be addressed in a separate change.

Documentation Impact

A new section in the advanced configuration guide will be created to describe the usage of this new feature.

Additionally this feature should be described in the OpenStack Security Guide. This will require a separate change request to the documentation project.

References

[1]: https://review.openstack.org/#/c/171918

castellan repository https://github.com/openstack/castellan

note, the castellan documentation is still a work in progress

barbican documentation http://docs.openstack.org/developer/barbican/

barbican wiki https://github.com/cloudkeep/barbican/wiki