Add Subnet Allocation to IPAM

https://blueprints.launchpad.net/neutron/+spec/subnet-allocation

Author:Carl Baldwin <carl.baldwin@hp.com>
Co-Author:Ryan Tidwell <ryan.tidwell@hp.com>

The current implementation of IPAM does not provide a mechanism to set up an address space from which subnets can be allocated. This will be needed in order to automatically allocate addresses for subnets instead of requiring subnet details at the time of creation.

This becomes very important with IPv6 where floating IPs are not implemented. A tenant may want to create a network with addresses that are routable: not just that the addresses are globally unique – because all IPv6 addresses should be – but that the operator can actually route them.

Problem Description

IPAM in Neutron cannot allocate subnets. Subnet details must be specified by the End User at the time of subnet creation.

End Users may want to offload the burden of keeping track of subnets and which addresses are in use. In this case, the End User should be able to set up a private address space from which these are automatically allocated. For IPv4, this will often be a portion of the RFC1918 address space but doesn’t need to be. It might be part of a corporate address space which has been delegated to the cloud. For IPv6, the End User may want Neutron to automatically calculate a useable ULA subnet using a pseudo-random algorithm in harmony with RFC4193 [1]. This implies that the algorithm for the selection of subnets within the space is pluggable in some way.

[1]http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4193

Deployers will set up external networks and may have a chunk of routable addresses that could be leased or delegated to tenants for use on their networks.

Neutron needs an API for creating and managaging address spaces and making them available to tenants.

Proposed Change

Overview

The purpose of this blueprint is to enable creation and management of subnet allocation pools. This will require changes to the core API and will also require a modification to subnet creation to allow specifying an address space id and a prefix length in lieu of actual subnet address details.

A reference implementation for this new feature will be added to implement this along with the included reference IPAM implementation.

A subnet pool can be shared or not shared. Only admins can create shared pool.

A quota mechanism will be added for shared pools. Quotas will be expressed in terms of the number of minimum atomically allocatable address units. To keep the math simple, the unit size will be hard-coded at /32 for IPv4 and /64 for IPv6. Counting the total number of addresses with IPv6 will make things cumbersome since even an unsigned 64 bit integer is not sufficient to express numbers this large. It would also require extra complexity around presentation in order to present these numbers to a user in a way that makes any sense at all. The implementation will share code between IP versions. The only difference will be the prefix size constant.

The resource quotas are applied to is not the SubnetPool, but rather IP addresses. As such, the current quota engine is not able to perform this operation so management and enforcement should occur in a custom fashion.

Operators may want to charge for allocations (hopefully not with IPv6) but the mechanism by which they can do this is beyond this bp’s scope.

A quota mechanism will be used for the number of SubnetPools which can be created per tenant just to avoid excessive abuse of the API.

Address Scoping

There should be one SubnetPool for each address scope. The pool simply tells us what addresses are available within the scope for allocation. It is out of this bp’s scope to implement anything more. However, in the future, there may be more use cases for allowing routing across scopes. For example:

  1. NAT may be used in IPv4 even without external networks.
  2. Two scope owners may agree that routing should be allowed. This might be useful when RBAC is implemented to allow tenants to cross-plug networks.
  3. A tenant has some globally routable addresses and wants to work it out with the cloud operator to route it externally.

Neutron has been implicitly using a single scope per tenant. Address uniqueness is not explicitly enforced in this scope. Most tenants likely already do this on their own. However, Neutron has not been enforcing uniqueness within a tenant’s address scope.

Overlapping addresses will be allowed for IPv4 pools. By default, the pool will allow overlapping. This can be changed by setting a flag when creating the pool. Overlapping will not be allowed under any circumstances inside IPv6 pools. However, there will be no enforcement of uniqueness across pools.

Multinetting on a network using subnets from different pools will be allowed.

Data Model Impact

New objects will be added:

SubnetPool

Attribute Type Description
id UUID Unique identifier for the pool.
name String Name of the pool
tenant id UUID The tenant owning the space.
shared boolean Whether the pool is shared.
version 4 or 6  
allow overlap boolean Whether the pool allows overlapping
min prefix len Integer Largest subnet that can be allocated.
default prefix len Integer The default subnet size to allocate

SubnetPoolRanges

Attribute Type Description
Subnet Pool UUID Unique identifier of the SubnetPool
first ip Integer  
last ip Integer  

SubnetAllocation

Attribute Type Description
id UUID Unique identifier for the allocation.
Subnet Pool UUID Unique identifier of the SubnetPool
IP Version 4 or 6  
prefix Integer The allocated network address prefix
prefix len Integer The prefix length

The pool_id field will be added to Subnet:

Subnet

Attribute Type Description
All fields as currently implemented    
pool id UUID ID of the pool the subnet was allocated from

When the subnet is either not allocated from a pool or is migrated during upgrade, pool_id will be ‘null’.

No data migration is necessary. The standard script to create the initial empty tables will be provided.

Needing an availability table like in existing address IPAM is not anticipated. This will be computed dynamically. Subnet allocation will be performed much less often than port allocation and won’t be as contentious in the database. This is an implementation detail to be worked out later. The availability table or some other clever solution may be necessary after all.

Avoiding overlap in the reference implementation will be a little trickier than with simple IP address allocation. It can’t use a simple unique constraint on the database because we want to support allocating subnets of different sizes, especially for IPv4. It could store allocations in terms of the minimum allocation size. So, a larger subnet allocation would be stored using multiple rows in the database. If SubnetPools were always of reasonable size, storing availability and allocations in the same table by prepopulating the entire table might be feasible. This is an implementation detail that can be worked out during code review.

If we stored allocations in terms of the minimum allocation size then we will have problems if that size is updated after the pool was created. For example, if the minimum size is increased, then what happens to existing allocations that are already smaller and don’t align with the new size?

REST API Impact

Subnet details become optional in subnet-create. Instead, an address space can be chosen along with a prefix length indicating the size of the subnet desired. This table summarizes changes to the subnet creation API.

Attribute Name Type Access Default Value Validation Conversion Description
cidr
allocated automatically
address pool string (UUID) same as cidr none Must exist and tenant must have access Pool to allocate from
allocation pools
-Use 0.0.0.0/NN
gateway ip
Use 0.0.0.0

Allocation pools and gateway ips can still be specified as they are with current subnet creation. Since the actual subnet address is not known, they must be specified using 0 as a wildcard prefix (0.0.0.0/NN) for the subnet where NN is the prefix length chosen. The actual network prefix will be filled in when it has been allocated. For example, if I send this in a successful subnet create call:

cidr = 0.0.0.0/25
address pool = <some id>
gateway_ip = 0.0.0.1
allocation_pool = 0.0.0.64 - 0.0.0.126

I might get this back:

cidr = 10.10.10.128/25
address pool = <some id>
gateway_ip = 10.10.10.129
allocation_pool = 10.10.10.192 - 10.10.10.254

In some cases, the tenant is perfectly content with a default prefix length determined by the pool. This has utility with IPv6 where the tenant just needs to be allocated a /64. In such cases,the pool is configured with a default prefix length and tenants have no need to supply a prefix length when requesting a subnet from the pool. For example, a subnet create call using the default prefix length of the pool (/25 in this case) would look like this:

Request:

cidr = <not specified>
address pool = <some id>
gateway_ip = 0.0.0.1
allocation_pool = 0.0.0.192 - 0.0.0.254

Allocation:

cidr = 10.10.10.128/25
address pool = <some id>
gateway_ip = 10.10.10.129
allocation_pool = 10.10.10.192 - 10.10.10.254

The following explains how cidr and address pool can be used together. The basic rules are that cidr and prefix are mutually exclusive and one must be specified. If a prefix length is specified, a pool must be specified too. The exception to this is if an option global default pool is defined in neutron.conf.

cidr address pool action  
Error when no global default pool defined else subnet with default prefix length is allocated
specified Allocate using the pool’s default prefix length  
specify specific CIDR
Same as before. Uses Implicit tenant address pool.  
specify specific CIDR specified Tries allocating specified subnet from pool.  
specify wildcard CIDR specified Subnet with requested prefix length from pool.  
specify wildcard CIDR
Error when no global default pool defined else allocate subnet from global pool

New errors from the API are possible: SubnetPoolNotFound, PrefixLengthTooBig/Small, NoAddressesAvailable.

New methods need to be added to create and manipulate SubnetPools.

Attribute Access Type Required CRUD Default Value Validation Constraints Notes  
id RO, all string(UUID) N/A R generated N/A UUID representing the address space  
name RW, owner string Yes CR N/A name of the pool    
shared RO, all (if True); RW, admin bool No CRU False True/False whether other tenants see it  
version RW, owner integer Yes CR N/A 4/6 The IP version  
allow overlap RW, admin bool No CR True if version=4 False if version=6 True/False allow overlapping subnets
min prefix len RW, owner integer Yes CRU N/A viable prefix lengths for IP version The IP version  
default prefix len RW, owner integer Yes CRU determined by min_prefix_len and version > min_prefix_len & < max version prefix default prefix allocation len  
ranges RW, owner list(2-tuples or CIDR’s) Yes CRU N/A valid non-overlapping ranges    

Basically, if shared is True then all tenants can read all fields. If it is not true then only the owner can see the pool. Only the owner is able to write the fields in any case. Only admin can write to the shared field.

For IPv4, the prefix lengths should be between 8 and 30. For IPv6, likely between 32 and 64.

There are certain parts of the IPv6 address space that are simply not specified for any kind of use (i.e. outside 2000::/3, fc00:/7 for ULA, and other specified scopes)[#]_. Some validation is called for. The following address spaces should be allowed:

[2]http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6-address-space/ipv6-address-space.xhtml
Addresses Description
2000::/3 Global unicast
fc00::/7 ULA addresses which can be routable within sites.

If ranges are updated after the initial creation, nothing will be done about existing subnet allocations that happen to fall outside of the new ranges.

This bp will start with the same shared model that we have now for networks. However, an RBAC mechanism can be added later similar to the one proposed for networks [2].

[3]https://review.openstack.org/#/c/132661/

Security Impact

There is an new API. With any new API, there is the potential for new attacks on the system. For example, if someone could obtain control over an address space, they could shrink it down to nothing and prevent further allocations.

As long as only admins can create shared pools and quotas are in place on the shared pools, there should be no new vulnerabilities introduced. With that said, particular attention should be paid during code review to guard against the introduction of new ones.

Someone with unlimited control of an address space could potentially fill it up as another way to prevent any further allocations.

Notifications Impact

None

Other End User Impact

Performance Impact

Allocation is performed on subnet create. This may involve a couple of significant database queries. Subnet create is not nearly as common as a port create so this is not expected to be a problem. Use of optimistic locking techniques should mitigate the impact.

The new API methods for creating and updating pools aren’t expected to be called often enough to have any significant impact.

We should consider atypical use cases in addition to the typical. If the implementation performs very poorly, it could be used as a denial of service attack and pose a Security Risk. This should be addressed during code review.

IPv6 Impact

This new feature must work for IPv6 equally as well as IPv4. This is intended to enhance the IPv6 experience in Neutron. There will be no effect on existing IPv6 features in Neutron.

Other Deployer Impact

By default, the cloud system will work like it does today except that tenants will have the ability to create their own pools without any deployer action.

The deployer may use the shared pools feature to create pools of addresses that will be available to tenants for use on their networks but is not required to. They will likely want to use this feature if they want to route to tenant networks either globally or within the datacenter.

External IPAM may be used with this new API. Development of external IPAM drivers is out of the scope of this blueprint.

Developer Impact

None

Community Impact

This change was discussed at the Kilo design summit in the pluggable IPAM session. It has also been discussed with the IPv6 subteam. This has been recognized as a need for the community, especially for IPv6 routing. With this API, the IPv6 subteam can just use prefix delegation as a mechanism for handing out allocations, after a user has made a request to this API.

Alternatives

N/A

Implementation

Assignee(s)

Primary assignee:
ryan-tidwell
Other contributors:
carl-baldwin L3 Subteam

Work Items

  • subnetpools REST API and corresponding DB support
  • Adjustments to subnets API and DB schema
  • Minimal Horizon enablement to support basic subnet allocation (v4 & v6)
  • Tempest test
  • Functional Test
  • API test

Dependencies

This blueprint depends on the work in the neutron-ipam [3]. That blueprint adds some of the frame-work necessary to implement this new feature.

[4]https://blueprints.launchpad.net/neutron/+spec/neutron-ipam

Testing

Unit test all new code of course. This means that the code structure must be testable. Will use TDD.

Tempest Tests

  • Create v4 subnetpool
  • Create v6 subnetpool
  • Allocate v4 subnet from subnetpool
  • Allocate v6 subnet from subnetpool

Functional Tests

  • Verify quota enforcement
  • Lower tenant quota, verify previously allocated resources intact, verify enforcement of new value
  • Assert applicable subnet allocation details not leaking cross-tenant with shared pools
  • Create subnetpools with allow_overlap=True and allow_overlap=False, verify allocation of subnets

API Tests

  • Verify defaults on subnetpool creation of v4 pools
  • Verify defaults on subnetpool creation of v6 pools
  • Verify allow_overlap is constrained to False for v6 pools
  • Create v4 subnetpool, verify shared and allow_overlap values
  • Create v6 subnetpool, verify shared and allow_overlap values
  • Allocate v4 subnet from subnetpool, assert success and subnet details
  • Allocate v6 subnet from subnetpool, assert success and subnet details

Documentation Impact

User Documentation

Update networking API reference Update admin guide

Developer Documentation

N/A