HTTP Guidelines

The HTTP RFC is a quite large specification. The HTTP 1.1 specification RFC 2616 clocks in at 175 pages. Published in 1999 it assumes a certain use of the HTTP protocol in the web browser / server framework. The idea for the use of HTTP as a more generic API layer only emerged a year after the publication of HTTP 1.1 in Chapter 5 of Roy Fieldings PhD thesis and was not widely adopted until many years later.

It’s important to realize that concepts and constructs that we want to manipulate in any given system will not be a perfect match with the concepts and constraints of HTTP. These mismatches can indicate a clearly wrong usage of HTTP, a special case to meet requirements, or an opportunity to improve an existing design. Any recommendation about using HTTP should come with substantial explanation about why that’s the best approach that we can determine at the time. This provides the justification for the decision in the present, and bread crumbs in the future if that justification no longer holds.

HTTP defines a set of standard headers, content negotiation with mime types, well defined status codes, a url structure, and methods on such urls.

If something is not covered by this document, or seems ambiguous after looking at these guidelines, implementers are encouraged to start a mailing list thread (with references to what they believe are relevant RFC sections) to clarify and to help make these guidelines more clear in the future. However, like legal code, an RFC is only a starting point. Precedents and common usage shape what an active standard really means.

Note: in recent years RFC 2616 was split into a multipart document in RFC 7230, RFC 7231, RFC 7232, RFC 7233, RFC 7234, and RFC 7235. No major functional changes are in these documents, but they are just reorganized for readability, and small clarifying corrections were made.

HTTP Caching and Proxy Behavior

HTTP was designed to be proxied and cached heavily. HTTP caching by both intermediary proxies, and by clients themselves, is to be expected in all cases where it is allowed. This is a fundamental design point to allow HTTP to work at high scale.

That means that whenever a response is defined as cacheable, for any reason, the server implementation should assume that those responses will be cached. This could mean that the server will never see follow up requests if it does not specify appropriate Cache-Control directives on cacheable responses.

The following HTTP methods are defined as cacheable: HEAD, GET, and POST RFC 7231 (section 4.2.3).

Requests that return a status code of any of the following are defined as cacheable: 200, 203, 204, 206, 300, 301, 404, 405, 410, 414, and 501 RFC 7231 (section 6.1).

A common misconception is that requests issued over a secure HTTP connection are not cached for security reasons. In fact, there is no exception made for https in the HTTP specification, caching works in exactly the same way as for non-encrypted HTTP. Most modern browsers apply the same caching algorithm to secure connections.

Most Python HTTP client libraries are extremely conservative on caching, so a whole class of completely valid RFC caching won’t be seen when using these clients. Assuming “it works in the Python toolchain” does not mean that it will in all cases, or is the only way to implement the HTTP. We expect that in-browser javascript clients will have vastly different cache semantics (that are completely valid by the RFC) than the existing Python clients.

Thinking carefully about cache semantics when implementing anything in the OpenStack API is critical to the API being compatible with the vast range of runtimes, programming languages, and proxy servers (open and commercial) that exist in the wild.

HTTP Response Codes

HTTP defines a set of standard response codes on requests, they are largely grouped as follows:

  • 1xx: compatibility with older HTTP, typically of no concern
  • 2xx: success
  • 3xx: redirection (the resource is at another location, or is unchanged since last requested)
  • 4xx: client errors (the client did something wrong)
  • 5xx: server errors (the server failed in a way that was unexpected)

2xx Success Codes

  • Synchronous resource creation
  • Response status code must be 201 Created
  • Must return a Location header with the URI of the created resource
  • Should return a representation of the resource in the body
  • Asynchronous resource creation
    • Response status code must be 202 Accepted
    • Must return a Location header set to one of the following:
      • the URI of the resource to be created, if known.
      • the URI of a status resource that the client can use to query the progress of the asynchronous operation.
  • Synchronous resource deletion
  • Response status code must be 204 No Content
  • For all other successful requests, the return code should be 200 OK.
  • If a request attempts to put a resource into a state which it is already in (for example, locking an instance which is already locked), the return code should be in the 2xx Successful range (usually matching the return code which would be given if the state had changed). It is not appropriate to use 409 Conflict when the resulting state of the resource is as the user requested.

5xx Server Error Codes

These codes represent that the server, or gateway, has encountered an error or is incapable of performing the requested method. They indicate to a client that the request has resulted in an error that exists on the server side and not with the client.

They should be used to indicate that errors have occurred during the request process which cannot be resolved by the client alone. The nature of each code in the 5xx series carries a specific meaning and they should be fully researched before deploying.

The server must not return server-side stacktraces/traceback output to the end user. Tracebacks and stacktraces belong in server-side logs, not returned via the HTTP API to an end user.

Failure Code Clarifications

  • If the request results in the OpenStack user exceeding his or her quota, the return code should be 403 Forbidden. Do not use 413 Request Entity Too Large.
  • For badly formatted requests, the return code should be 400 Bad Request. Do not use 422 Unprocessable Entity.
    • If the API limits the length of a property that is a collection, the return code should be 400 Bad Request when the request exceeds the length limit. The client should adjust requests to achieve success, and shouldn’t expect to repeat the request and have it work. Do not use 403 Forbidden for this case, because this is different than exceeding quota – for a subsequent request to succeed when quotas are exceeded the server environment must change.
  • If a request contains a reference to a nonexistent resource in the body (not URI), the code should be 400 Bad Request. Do not use 404 NotFound because RFC 7231 (section 6.5.4) mentions the origin server did not find a current representation for the target resource for 404 and representation for the target resource means a URI. A good example of this case would be when requesting to resize a server to a non-existent flavor. The server is the resource in the URI, and as long as it exists, 404 would never be the proper response. 422 Unprocessable Entity is also an option for this situation but do not use 422 because the code is not defined in RFC 7231 and not standard. Since the 400 response code can mean a wide range of things, it is extremely important that the error message returned clearly indicates that the resource referenced in the body does not exist, so that the consumer has a clear understanding of what they need to do to correct the problem.
  • If a request contains an unexpected attribute in the body, the server should return a 400 Bad Request response. Do not handle the request as normal by ignoring the bad attribute. Returning an error allows the client side to know which attribute is wrong and have the potential to fix a bad request or bad code. (For example, additionalProperties should be false on JSON-Schema definition)
  • Similarly, if the API supports query parameters and a request contains an unknown or unsupported parameter, the server should return a 400 Bad Request response. Invalid values in the request URL should never be silently ignored, as the response may not match the client’s expectation. For example, consider the case where an API allows filtering on name by specifying ‘?name=foo’ in the query string, and in one such request there is a typo, such as ‘?nmae=foo’. If this error were silently ignored, the user would get back all resources instead of just the ones named ‘foo’, which would not be correct. The error message that is returned should clearly indicate the problem so that the user could correct it and re-submit.
  • If a request is made to a known resource URI, but the HTTP method used for the request is not supported for that resource, the return code should be 405 Method Not Allowed. The response should include the Allow header with the list of accepted request methods for the resource.
  • If a request is made which attempts to perform an action on a resource which is already performing that action and therefore the request cannot be fulfilled (for example, snapshotting an instance which is already in the process of snapshotting), the return code should be 409 Conflict.
  • A 500 Internal Server Error should not be returned to the user for failures due to user error that can be fixed by changing the request on the client side. 500 failures should be returned for any error state that cannot be fixed by a client, and requires the operator of the service to perform some action to fix. It is also possible that this error can be raised deliberately in case of some detected but unrecoverable error such as a MessageQueueTimeout from a failure to communicate with another service component, an IOError caused by a full disk, or similar error.


If an error response body is returned, it must conform to the Errors guideline.

HTTP Methods

HTTP defines a concept of METHODS on a resource uri.

PATCH /foo/ID UPDATE (partial) YES

The mapping of HTTP requests method to the Create, Read, Update, Delete (CRUD) model is one of convenience that can be considered a useful, but incomplete, memory aid. Specifically it misrepresents the meaning and purpose of POST. According to RFC 7231 POST “requests that the target resource process the representation enclosed in the request according to the resource’s own specific semantics”. This can, and often does, mean create but it can mean many other things, based on the resource’s requirements.

More generally, CRUD models the four basic functions of persistent storage. An HTTP API is not solely a proxy for persistent storage. It can provide access to such storage, but it can do much more.

Please note that while HEAD is recommended for checking for the existence of a resource, the corresponding GET should always be implemented too, and should return an identical response with the addition of a body, if applicable.

TODO: HEAD is weird in a bunch of our wsgi frameworks and you don’t have access to it. Figure out if there is anything useful there.

TODO: Provide guidance on what HTTP methods (PUT/POST/PATCH/DELETE, etc) should always be supported, and which should be preferred.

  • When choosing how to update a stored resource, PUT and PATCH imply different semantics. PUT sends a full resource representation (including unchanged fields) which will replace the resource stored on the server. In contrast, PATCH accepts partial representation which will modify the server’s stored resource. RFC 5789 does not specify a partial representation format. JSON-patch in RFC 6902 specifies a way to send a series of changes represented as JSON. One unstandardized alternative is to accept missing resource fields as unchanged from the server’s saved state of the resource. RFC 5789 doesn’t forbid using PUT in this way, but this method makes it possible to lose updates when dealing with lists or sets.

  • There can also be confusion on when to use POST or PUT in the specific instance of creating new resources. POST should be used when the URI of the resulting resource is different from the URI to which the request was made and results in the resource having an identifier (the URI) that the server generated. In the OpenStack environment this is the common case. PUT should be used for resource creation when the URI to which the request is made and the URI of the resulting resource is the same.

    That is, if the id of the resource being created is known, use PUT and PUT to the correct URI of the resource. Otherwise, use POST and POST to a more generic URI which will respond with the new URI of the resource.

  • The GET method should only be used for retrieving representations of resources. It should never change the state of the resource identified by the URI nor the state of the server in general. RFC 7231 states GET is the primary mechanism of information retrieval and the focus of almost all performance optimizations..

HTTP request bodies are theoretically allowed for all methods except TRACE, however they are not commonly used except in PUT, POST and PATCH. Because of this, they may not be supported properly by some client frameworks, and you should not allow request bodies for GET, DELETE, TRACE, OPTIONS and HEAD methods.

Common Mistakes

There are many common mistakes that have been made in the implementations of RESTful APIs in OpenStack. This section attempts to enumerate them with reasons why they were wrong, and propose future alternatives.

Use of 501 - Not Implemented

Some time in the Folsom era projects started using 501 for “Feature Not Implemented” - Discussion on openstack-dev

This is a completely incorrect reading of HTTP. “Method” means something very specific in HTTP, it means an HTTP Method. One of GET / HEAD / POST / PUT / PATCH / OPTIONS / TRACE.

The purpose of the 501 error was to indicate to the client that POST is not now, and never will be an appropriate method to call on any resource on the server. An appropriate client action is to blacklist POST and ensure no code attempts to use this. This comes from the early days of HTTP where there were hundreds of commercial HTTP server implementations, and the assumption that all HTTP methods would be handled by a server was not something the vendors could agree on. This usage was clarified in RFC RFC 7231 (section 6.6.2).

If we assume the following rfc statement to be true: “This is the appropriate response when the server does not recognize the request method and is not capable of supporting it for any resource.” that is irreconcilable with a narrower reading, because we’ve said all clients are correct in implementing “never send another POST again to any resource”. It’s as if saying the “closed” sign on a business means both, closed for today, as well as closed permanently and ok for the city to demolish the building tomorrow. Stating that either is a valid reading so both should be allowed only causes tears and confusion.

We live in a very different world today, dominated by Apache and Nginx. As such 501 is something you’d be unlikely to see in the wild. However that doesn’t mean we can replace it’s definition with our own.

Going forward projects should use a 400 ‘BadRequest’ response for this condition, plus a more specific error message back to the user that the feature was not implemented in that cloud. 404 ‘NotFound’ may also be appropriate in some situations when the URI will never exist. However one of the most common places where we would return “Feature Not Implemented” is when we POST an operation to a URI of the form /resource/{id}/action. Clearly that URI is found, however some operations on it were not supported. Returning a 404 (which is by default cachable) would make the client believe /resource/{id}/action did not exist at all on the server.